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Info Letter No. 49 - June 1998

Copyright by HEXAGON Software 1998

ZAR3 - Drawing Document

With the new version, you can generate a DIN A4 drawing with all the most important dimensions as a DXF or IGES file which can then be imported into CAD. Or you can use DXFPLOT to print the drawing out directly on a plotter or laser printer. In the new ZAR3 "Document" menu, you make entries about the manufacturer, date, changes and so on, these will then automatically be used by the program for the drawing header.

Calculations document replaces drawing

Manufacturing drawings such as those in ZAR3 can now be generated by most HEXAGON mechanical engineering programs. We recommend that you only archive the calculation file instead of the CAD drawing. All necessary drawing information is included in the file. When changes are made, the machine element is re-calculated, the results are checked, the changes are added to the index and a new manufacturing drawing is printed out. As there are no CAD drawings, you can prevent the worst-case scenerio of drawings being changed, without the machine part being re-calculated with the new data.

WL1+, TR1 Material Data Base

As an alternative to the WL1WST.DBF material data base, the material for shafts, or supports can now be taken from the WST1 data base file WST1BASE.DBF. There are over 500 data records (steel and NE metals) to choose from.

When using the WST1 data base, please note that the sensitivity value eta k is not included in the data base. This must be entered by the user. The data base files WST1BASE.DBF and WST1DYN.DBF are included in the programs WL1+ and TR1.

ZAR1+ Gear Rack Calculation

A pinion/gear rack pair is calculated by entering gear 2 as a gear with a very high number of teeth (2000 or -2000 for a ring gear). However, please remember that the allowance for tooth play is very large for the calculation of the selected tolerance field due to the relation with the generated pitch diameter. For this reason, the values asne and Asni for gear 2 should be entered manually. There is an auxiliary picture for the calculation of gear racks - ZSTANGE. If this is not included in the list, please go to "New" or "Insert" and select zstange.plt. A sample calculation (zstange.zar) can be downloaded from the internet under "http://www.hexagon.de/history/support"

New Spring Materials

A new material from the Sandvik company has been added to the data base FEDWST.DBF. The file can be downloaded from the internet under "www.hexagon.de/history/files" (For user and password see info letter).

Spring Materials - Data Base

The input for the spring materials has been simplified. You can now enter two characteristic points for the tensile strengths and Goodman diagrams in relation to the wire diameter. The program uses these to calculate the parameters for the equations.

Rm = RM0 - DRM * log(d/DR0)
tau zul = Rm * 0.56 (for compression springs)

Parameters for the Goodman diagram:
tauo = TO1 - log(d/DT0) * DTO1
tauu = TU1 - log(d/DT0) * DTU1
Gradient of the lines = DTG

When extending the data base, the fields for the Goodman diagram can be left empty, which results in there being no fatigue stress diagram for this material. The fields G, E, RMO, DRM and RMMAX however, must be completed, otherwise the new material cannot be used.
If you have a table or a diagram with the tensile strength in relation to the wire diameter, you can use this to calculate the parameters Rm0 and DRM. The reference wire diameter DO can usually be defined as 1mm for cold-formed wire.
Example: The following is known about a material, that the tensile strength for a diameter of 1mm = 1850 N/mm, and Rm for 10mm = 1140 N/mm. For 2mm Rm = , 1640 N/mm.
Calculation: The values for d=1mm and d=10mm are entered, the program then calculates:

Rm   = RM0 - DRM * log(d/DR0)
1850 = RM0 - DRM * log(1mm/1mm)
1140 = RM0 - DRM * log(10mm/1mm)

The logarithm of 1 is 0, the first equation results in RMO=1850 N/mm. The second equation then has the following result after adjustment:

DRM = (RM0 - 1140)/log(10/1) = 710 N/mm

resulting in:

Rm = 1850 - 710 * log(d)

used for d=2 results in:

Rm = 1850 - 710 * log(2) = 1636 N/mm,

The deviation from the table value amounts to 4 N/mm.

HPGLVIEW for Windows NT

There is a new 32-bit version of HPGLVIEW, this now supports long file names. This version runs under Windows 95, Windows 98 and Windows NT 3.5, 4.0 and 5.0. However it does not run under Windows 3.1. Compared to the 16-bit version, the user interface and dialogue windows have been improved. The new HPGLVIEW version can plot files in the HP-GL format or the HP-GL/2 format with up to 250,000 drawing elements being displayed. In the 16-bit version the number of drawing elements displayed has been increased from 100,000 to 250,000. If this is not enough for you, you can use the HPGL Manager. The Manager can go up to 500,000 drawing elements for the 16-bit version. The number of drawing elements for the 32-bit version is only limited by the size of your PCs RAM. You require 64MB for a drawing of around 1 million lines. Registered users can obtain an update for the newest 32-bit version. The 16-bit Windows version is still available, it can be installed under Windows NT too, but only supports file names with the usual 8.3 convention.

Decimal Sign: Comma instead of Point

In all programs you can now set whether you wish to use a decimal point or comma under Settings. This is especially important for export of tables and printouts to Excel, Quattro Pro etc. Depending on language version or settings, you can now use a point or comma as the decimal sign.

Calculation Proof with Reference Calculation

The program disks for machine element calculation programs contain a file called "TRAIN". This file includes calculation samples from taken from different literature, e.g.
- DIN Norms
- VDI Guide Lines
- Niemann: Machine Elements
- Decker: Machine Elements
- Roloff-Matek: Machine Elements
- Haberhauer-Bodenstein: Machine Elements
- Khler/Rgnitz: Machine Parts
- Hinz: Verbindungselemente
- Schorcht: Metal Springs
- Holzmann: Festigkeitslehre
- Zammert: Working Design Calculation
- Knaebel: Schwingungslehre
- Dubbel: Mechanical Engineering Handbook
You can use the calculation samples to check the calculation steps and to check the programs.

SR1 - Tolerance Class

For the thread deviation of screws and nut threads, different tolerance classes are determined in DIN 13. The most common for the outer thread are 4h, 6h, 4g, 6g, 4e and 6e. For nuts 6H and 6G are the most common. As with ISO fits (TOLPASS, TOL1 and WN1) or with tooth clearance (ZAR1), H means less clearance (pairing H-h in the most extreme case is clearance free), g(G) and e stand for large clearance. Tolerance class 6 stands for normal tolerance, this class requires a smaller tolerance during manufacture. In SR1 the core diameter d3 and the flank diameter d2 have until now been calculated according to the tolerance class 4h or 6h. The greatest dimension is the same for all h classes. With the new SR1 version, you can as an alternative, enter the values for d2 and d3 manually. This effects the strength calculation (core cross-section) and tightening torque (due to surface friction and radial friction). For the information about the tolerance tables I would like to thank Mr Uhde and Mr Mohr of KAMAX in Osterode, Germany.

SR1 - Nut Material

When screw and nut are combined from the same strength class, the screw-in depth need not be calculated. It is in any case safe against stripping. For special screws, or when a nut of lower strength is used with a screw of higher strength, the stripping safety must be calculated. The nut material can be selected from the data base "PRESSUNG.DBF", which can also be used for clamping pieces. Thank you to Mr Dose for this improvement suggestion.

FED7- Special-Compression Springs and Serial Mounting

There is now a light version of the FED7 software for calculation of compression springs of any shape available for 785DM. FED7 can calculate compression springs with changing coil distances, coil diameter and wire diameter by defining cylindrical spring sections. You can equally well calculate the characteristic curve and the path for spring ratio, spring operation and natural frequency for compression springs serially mounted having different wire and coil diameters. In comparison to the full version, the light version does not have the interfaces for DXF, IGES and DXFPLOT. Spring animation is not possible, the feature for automatic generation of the spring section for barrel-shaped, waisted and conical compression springs is not available.

FED2 - sideways upended eyes

A quarter of a turn less is required for sideways upended eyes. The eye position for eyes sideways upended on both sides is 180 instead of 0 for an even coil number. This was not previously taken into account. For this suggestion I would like to thank Mr Jckle of Bernina in Steckborn, Switzerland.

WN1 - Torque

Upper and lower values for the transferable torque under the prerequisite that no transferable axial force occurs are now newly calculated and displayed (under standard printout, quick-output and output field in re-calculation). The measurements for the shaft and hub drawings are provided without decimal places. For this suggestion I would like to thank Dr. Wege of the Highschool for Technology and Economics in Leipzig, Germany.

SAM 4.0 by Artas

There is a new version (4.0) of the SAM Gear Analysis Program available. HEXAGON has exclusive rights to sell this program in Germany. The most important new features are:
- DXF import/export
- Zoom, lines, color settings
- Improved operation movemet definition
- Transformation features
The update for the new version costs 20% of the licence fee and can be obtained from HEXAGON or directly from Artas. Please state when you order whether you require the 16 or 32-bit Windows versions. Further information and a demo version are available on the internet under "www.artas.nl".


Some programs use an arc with start point equal to end point or 0 to 360, instead of a circle in the HPGL format. These methods are also used to convert in HPGL-Manager, CNC code, postscript, DXF and IGES, etc. Some programs only draw a point at 0 when loading and arc from 0 to 360 from a DXF file. For this reason this drawing element in the new programs is automatically converted to a circle (CIRCLE command) when converting to DXF. For this information and test files I would like to thank Mr Hartkorn of PSB, Pirmasens in Germany.

French Versions

Our cup spring program FED4 and our HPGL Manager, DXF Manager and HPGLVIEW are now available in French. The translation of the technical terms has been improved in all French versions of the spring programs. I would like to thank Mr Ghysel of Ressorts del'Oise, Therdonne, and Stephanie Stojanovic, Paris.

Registered users of the French versions can obtain an update for 60DM. If you have an English or a German version and wish to have your results printed in French, you can obtain a foreign language version for Installation on the same PC for a further 90DM.

Configurable Data Directory

For the working directory of a program, the CFG file is loaded with the configuration (can be changed by clicking on the program icon with the right-hand mouse button, then "Properties->Shortcut"). Until now this was also automatically the working directory. This is not always sensible with network versions. Each user should have his own configuration, however the working directory for the standard directory should be the same for all users. We recommend having the working directory on the local hard drive (C:). Then the start-working directory can be on a network drive. For this suggestion I would like to thank Mr Burchard (of Kuhnke, Malente) and Mr Bohnen (of Siemens Schaltwerk, Berlin).

Data Bases - Appending instead of Changing

Attention must be paid when making changes to data base values. When you open old calculations you will get different results to previously if for example material data has been changed in the data base. This has advantages and disadvantages. On the one hand, the modified data is automatically used in all calculations. On the other hand, it is difficult at first glance to see why the results are not the same as those on old calculations (especially when somebody else changes the data base). When you make changes to the data base, you should always inform all program users. With network versions, it is possible to have the data base file in a write-protected directory. Priveliges for changing and adding to the files can be provided to certain users. A better alternative is to add a new data record with a different name and the same contents.

Printer Configuration

The printer configuration has been divided up into text printout and graphic printout. The way the text printout looks (printout, standard, excerpt) can be changed under "Text Printout". Under "Graphic Printout" the shading and zero point displacement for drawings and diagrams can be configured.
Translation German/English by Betext

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